Frameworks vs Rules

Getting the job done is no excuse for not following the rules. Corollary: Following the rules will not get the job done,” said Somebody I Don’t Know.

When I was developing software under the draconian rules of CMMI there was the very clear message from the handlers (as we called them) to follow the rules or there will be consequences. So we did. Mostly. The problem was that amongst those of us in the trenches there wasn’t much of a feeling of actually getting work done. There was a lot of rework due to features being designed without our input. The design team would send us a design, we’d make noise that the design had problems but we’d have to build it anyway, we’d build the unworkable thing, demonstrate a flawed product to the design team, they’d redesign (without our input), re-document, and send us a new design.

And so we lurched forward. We followed the rules and weren’t getting the job done from the customer’s perspective. I’m sure the CMMI gods were happy, though.

This was before “Agile” was a thing. There were plenty of rapid application development ideas in the industry and in loose fashion we ended up implementing what we thought we could get away with. And that worked.

Our impromptu “water cooler” conversations in the mornings where we mostly complained but frequently suggested solutions for each other’s techno-pain would be easily recognized by any scrum master as the daily stand-up or daily scrum. The way we cut up (literally) copies of the official documentation and re-arranged the work to better match how we thought the work needed to be done looked a lot like a sprint backlog.

We were getting the job done, but not following the rules. As far as I know, none of us ever suffered adverse consequences. It’s hard to argue with success no matter the path taken to get there.

Imposing elaborate sets of rules to a fundamentally creative process will pretty much guarantee a slow boat to success. In the late 80’s and early 90’s that seemed to work well enough. But those days are long gone. It’s why the framework approach to many of the Agile methodologies are more successful in software and similarly creativity dependent projects. Frameworks leave room to adjust, adapt, experiment, and act.

And…

Rules are important. Frameworks aren’t devoid of rules. Far from it. Tossing out bits and pieces of a framework shouldn’t be done just to get the job done. The rules that are part of a framework should be considered a minimal set essential to success. None of them should be discarded without careful deliberation. Unlike the rules to something like CMMI that are meant to control as many aspects of the project as possible and squeeze out any trace of uncertainty and risk, the rules in an Agile framework are meant to serve as important guides. Operating outside a framework for extended periods is likely to put a project at significant risk.

Well-established and proven frameworks, such as scrum, have extracted the essential rules from previous methodologies and experiences and organized them in useful ways. They don’t reject all the previous rules in a quest to re-invent the wheel. They build on what has been learned to improve the wheel. This is reflected in the words of the Stoic philosopher Seneca:

Won’t you be walking in your predecessors’ footsteps? I surely will use the older path, but if I find a shorter and smoother way, I’ll blaze a trail there. The ones who pioneered these paths aren’t our masters, but our guides. Truth stands open to everyone, it hasn’t been monopolized.Seneca, Moral Letters, 33.11

The Stoics recognize that our predecessors weren’t entirely wrong. But they are very likely incomplete. It is incumbent on us to improve upon and extend their work.

This illuminates the importance and value of a good scrum master. Like a good cowboy or cowgirl, part of their job is to ride the fences, looking for breaches to the framework. If found, either repair the fence with coaching or decide if the fence line needs to move to accommodate a need dictated by circumstances and conditions.

Image credit: Wikipedia

The Pull of Well-Crafted Product Visions and Release Goals

There was even a trace of mild exhilaration in their attitude. At least, they had a clear-cut task ahead of them. The nine months of indecision, of speculation about what might happen, of aimless drifting with the pack were over. Now they simply had to get themselves out, however appallingly difficult that might be. [1]

In the early 20th Century, Sir Ernest Shackleton led an expedition attempting to cross the South Pole on foot. He was unsuccessful in that attempt. What he succeeded at, however, was something far more impressive. After nearly two years of battling conditions south of the Antarctic Circle, Shackleton saw to it that all 27 men of his crew made it safely home. As Alfred Lansing notes, “Though they had failed dismally even to come close to the expedition’s original objective, they knew now that somehow they had done much, much more than ever they set out to do.”

There is much I could write about the lessons from Shackleton, his crew, and the Endurance that apply to our own individual endeavors – personal and professional. For the moment, I wish to reflect on the sheer clarity of the goal 28 men had in 1915-1916: To survive, by any means and nothing short of complete dedicated effort.

To be sure, their goal was self-serving – no one can judge them for that – and no product team is ever likely to be placed in a situation of delivering in the face of such high stakes. Indeed, the lessons from Endurance are striking in their contrast to just how feeble the drama is that is often brought into product delivery schedules. We call them “death marches,” but we know not of what we speak.

One of the things we can learn from Endurance is the power of a clearly defined objective. Do or die. That’s pretty damn clear. Time and time again, Shackleton’s crew were faced with completing seemingly impossible tasks under the harshest of conditions with the barest of resources and vanishingly small chances for success.

What kept them going? Certainly, the will and desire to live. There were many other factors, too. What interests me in this post is reflected in the opening quote. The emergence of a well-defined task that cleared away the fog of speculation, indecision, and uncertainty. Episodes like this are described multiple times in Lansing’s book.

Why this is important to something like a product vision is that it clearly illustrates a phenomenon I learned about recently called “The Goal Gradient Hypothesis,” which basically says our efforts increase as we get closer to our goals. But here’s the rub. We have to know and understand what the goal is. “Do or die” is clear and leaves little room for misunderstanding. “Let’s go build a killer app,” not so much.

From the research:

We found that members of a café RP accelerated their coffee purchases as they progressed toward earning a free coffee. The goal-gradient effect also generalized to a very different incentive system, in which shorter goal distance led members to visit a song-rating Web site more frequently, rate more songs during each visit, and persist longer in the rating effort. Importantly, in both incentive systems, we observed the phenomenon of postreward resetting, whereby customers who accelerated toward their first reward exhibited a slowdown in their efforts when they began work (and subsequently accelerated) toward their second reward. [2]

Far away goals, like a product vision, are much less motivating than near-term goals, such as sprint goals. And yet it is the product vision that can, if well-crafted and well-communicated, pull a team forward during a postreward resetting period.

But perhaps the most important lesson from the research – as far as product development is concerned – is that incentives matter.  How an organization structures these is important. Since most people fail The Marshmallow Test, rewarding success on smaller goals that lead to a larger goal is likely to help teams stay focused and dedicated in the long run. Rather than one large post-product release celebration, smaller rewards after each successful sprint are more likely to keep teams engaged and productive.

References

[1] Lansing, A. (1957) Endurance: Shackleton’s Incredible Voyage, pg. 80

[2] Kivetz, R., Urminsky, O., Zheng, Y (2006) The Goal-Gradient Hypothesis Resurrected: Purchase Acceleration, Illusionary Goal Progress, and Customer Retention, Journal of Marketing Research, 39 Vol. XLIII (February 2006), 39–58

Agile and Changing Requirements or Design

I hear this (or some version) more frequently in recent years than in past:

Agile is all about changing requirements at anytime during a project, even at the very end.

I attribute the increased frequency to the increased popularity of Agile methods and practices.

That the “Responding to change over following a plan” Agile Manifesto value is cherry picked so frequently is probably due to a couple of factors:

  • It’s human nature for a person to resist being cornered into doing something they don’t want to do. So this value gets them out of performing a task.
  • The person doesn’t understand the problem or doesn’t have a solution. So this value buys them time to figure out how to solve the problem. Once they do have a solution, well, it’s time to change the design or the requirements to fit the solution. This reason isn’t necessary bad unless it’s the de facto solution strategy.

The intent behind the “Responding to change” value, and the way successful Agile is practiced, does not allow for constant and unending change. Taken to it’s logical conclusion, nothing would ever be completed and certainly nothing would ever be released to the market.

I’m not going to rehash the importance of the preposition in the value statement. Any need to explain the relativity implied by it’s use has become a useful signal for me to spend my energies elsewhere. But for those who are not challenged by the grammar, I’d like to say a few thing about how to know when change is appropriate and when it’s important to follow a plan.

The key is recognizing and tracking decision points. With traditional project management, decisions are built-in to the project plan. Every possible bit of work is defined and laid out on a Gantt chart, like the steel rails of a train track. Deviation from this path would be actively discouraged, if it were considered at all.

Using an Agile process, decision points that consider possible changes in direction are built into the process – daily scrums, sprint planning, backlog refinement, reviews and demonstrations at the end of sprints and releases, retrospectives, acceptance criteria, definitions of done, continuous integration – these all reflect deliberate opportunities in the process to evaluate progress and determine whether any changes need to be made. These are all activities that represent decisions or agreements to lock in work definitions for short periods of time.

For example, at sprint planning, a decision is made to complete a block of work in a specified period of time – often two weeks. After that, the work is reviewed and decisions are made as to whether or not that work satisfies the sprint goal and, by extension, the product vision. At this point, the product definition is specifically opened up for feedback from the stakeholders and any proposed changes are discussed. Except under unique circumstances, changes are not introduced mid-sprint and the teams stick to the plan.

Undoing decisions or agreements only happens if there is supporting information, such as technical infeasibility or a significant market shift. Undoing decisions and agreements doesn’t happen just because “Agile is all about changing requirements.” Agile supports changing requirements when there is good reason to do so, irrespective of the original plan. With traditional project management, it’s all about following the plan and change at any point is resisted.

This is the difference. With traditional project management, decisions are built-in to the project plan. With Agile they are adapted in.

How does Agile help with long term planning?

I’m often involved in discussions about Agile that question its efficacy in one way or another. This is, in my view, a very good thing and I highly encourage this line of inquiry. It’s important to challenge the assumptions behind Agile so as to counteract any complacency or expectation that it is a panacea to project management ills. Even so, with apologies to Winston Churchill, Agile is the worst form of project management…except for all the others.

Challenges like this also serve to instill a strong understanding of what an Agile mindset is, how it’s distinct from Agile frameworks, tools, and practices, and where it can best be applied. I would be the first to admin that there are projects for which a traditional waterfall approach is best. (For example, maintenance projects for nuclear power reactors. From experience, I can say traditional waterfall project management is clearly the superior approach in this context.)

A frequent challenge the idea that with Agile it is difficult to do any long-term planning.

Consider the notion of vanity vs actionable metrics. In many respects, large or long-term plans represent a vanity leading metric. The more detail added to a plan, the more people tend to believe and behave as if such plans are an accurate reflection of what will actually happen. “Surprised” doesn’t adequately describe the reaction when reality informs managers and leaders of the hard truth. I worked a multi-million dollar project many years ago for a Fortune 500 company that ended up being canceled. Years of very hard work by hundreds of people down the drain because projected revenues based on a software product design over seven years old were never going to materialize. Customers no longer wanted or needed what the product was offering. Our “solution” no longer had a problem to solve.

Agile – particularly more recent thinking around the values and principles in the Manifesto – acknowledges the cognitive biases in play with long-term plans and attempts to put practices in place that compensate for the risks they introduce into project management. One such bias is reflected in the planning fallacy – the further out the planning window extends into the future, the less accurate the plan. An iterative approach to solving problems (some of which just happen to use software) challenges development teams on up through managers and company leaders to reassess their direction and make much smaller course corrections to accommodate what’s being learned. As you can well imagine, we may have worked out how to do this in the highly controlled and somewhat predictable domain of software development, however, the critical areas for growth and Agile applicability are at the management and leadership levels of the business.

Another important aspect the Agile mindset is reflected in the Cone of Uncertainty. It is a deliberate, intentional recognition of the role of uncertainty in project management. Yes, the goal is to squeeze out as much uncertainty (and therefore risk) as possible, but there are limits. With a traditional project management plan, it may look like everything has been accounted for, but the rest of the world isn’t obligated to follow the plan laid out by a team or a company. In essence, an Agile mindset says, “Lift your gaze up off of the plan (the map) and look around for better, newer, more accurate information (the territory.) Then, update the plan and adjust course accordingly.” In Agile-speak, this is what is behind phrases like “delivery dates emerge.”

Final thought: You’ll probably hear me say many times that nothing in the Agile Manifesto can be taken in isolation. It’s a working system and some parts if it are more relevant than others depending on the project and the timing. So consider what I’ve presented here in concert with the Agile practices of developing good product visions and sprint goals. Product vision and sprint goals keep the project moving in the desired direction without holding it on an iron-rails-track that cannot be changed without a great deal of effort, if at all.

So, to answer the question in the post title, Agile helps with long term planning by first recognizing the the risks inherent in such plans and implementing process changes that mitigate or eliminate those risks. Unpacking that sentences would consist of listing all the risks inherent with long-term planning and the mechanics behind and reasons why scrum, XP, SAFe, LeSS, etc., etc., etc. have been developed.

The Practice of Sizing Spikes with Story Points

Every once and a while it’s good to take a tool out of it’s box and find out if it’s still fit for purpose. Maybe even find if it can be used in a new way. I recently did this with the practice of sizing spikes with story points. I’ve experienced a lot of different projects since last revisiting my thinking on this topic. So after doing a little research on current thinking, I updated an old set of slides and presented my position to a group of scrum masters to set the stage for a conversation. My position: Estimating spikes with story points is a vanity metric and teams are better served with time-boxed spikes that are unsized.

While several colleagues came with an abundance of material to support their particular position, no one addressed the points I raised. So it was a wash. My position hasn’t changed appreciably. But I did gain from hearing several arguments for how spikes could be used more effectively if they were to be sized with story points. And perhaps the feedback from this article will further evolve my thinking on the subject.

To begin, I’ll answer the question of “What is a spike?” by accepting the definition from agiledictionary.com:

Spike

A task aimed at answering a question or gathering information, rather than at producing shippable product. Sometimes a user story is generated that cannot be well estimated until the development team does some actual work to resolve a technical question or a design problem. The solution is to create a “spike,” which is some work whose purpose is to provide the answer or solution.

The phrase “cannot be well estimated” is suggestive. If the work cannot be well estimated than what is the value of estimating it in the first place? Any number placed on the spike is likely to be for the most part arbitrary. Any number greater than zero will therefore arbitrarily inflate the sprint velocity and make it less representative of the value being delivered. It may make the team feel better about their performance, but it tells the stakeholders less about the work remaining. No where can I find a stated purpose of Agile or scrum to be making the team “feel better.” In practice, by masking the amount of value being delivered, the opposite is probably true. The scrum framework ruthlessly exposes all the unhelpful and counterproductive practices and behaviors an unproductive team may be unconsciously perpetuating.

Forty points of genuine value delivered at the end of a sprint is 100% of rubber on the road. Forty points delivered of which 10 are points assigned to one or more spikes is 75% of rubber on the road. The spike points are slippage. If they are left unpointed then it is clear what is happening. A spike here and there isn’t likely to have a significant impact on the velocity trend over, for example, 8 or 10 sprints. One or more spikes per sprint will cause the velocity to sink and suggests a number of corrective actions – actions that may be missed if the velocity is falsely kept at a certain desired or expected value. In other words, pointing spikes hides important information that could very well impact the success of the project. Bad news can inspire better decisions and corrective action. Falsely positive news most often leads to failures of the epic variety.

Consider the following two scenarios.

Team A has decided to add story points to their spikes. Immediately they run into several significant challenges related to the design and the technology choices made. So they create a number of spikes to find the answers and make some informed decision. The design and technology struggles continue for the next 10 sprints. Even with the challenges they faced, the team appears to have quickly established a stable velocity.

The burndown, however, looks like this:

If the scrum master were to use just the velocity numbers it would appear Team A is going to finish their work in about 14 sprints. This might be true if Team A were to have no more spikes in the remaining sprints. The trend, however, strongly suggests that’s not likely to happen. If a team has been struggling with design and technical issues for 10 sprints, it is unlikely those struggles will suddenly stop at sprint 11 and beyond unless there have been deliberate efforts to mitigate that potential. By pointing spikes and generating a nice-looking velocity chart it is more probable that Team A is unaware of the extent to which they may be underestimating the amount of time to complete items in the backlog.

Team B finds themselves in exactly the same situation as Team A. They immediately run into several significant challenges related to the design and the technology choices made and create a number of spikes to find the answers and make some informed decision. However, they decided not to add story points to their spikes. The design and technology struggles continue for the next 10 sprints. The data show that Team B is clearly struggling to establish a stable velocity.

And the burndown looks like this, same as Team A after 10 sprints:

However, it looks like it’s going to take Team B 21 more sprints to complete the work. That they’re struggling isn’t good. That it’s clear they struggling is very good. This isn’t apparent with Team A’s velocity chart. Since it’s clear they are struggling it is much easier to start asking questions, find the source of the agony, and make changes that will have a positive impact. It is also much more probably that the changes will be effective because they will have been based on solid information as to what the issues are. Less guess work involved with Team B than with Team A.

However, any scrum master worth their salt is going to notice that the product backlog burndown doesn’t align with the velocity chart. It isn’t burning down as fast as the velocity chart suggests it should be. So the savvy Team A scrum master starts tracking the burndown of value-add points vs spike points. Doing so might look like the following burndown:

Using the average from the parsed burndown, it is much more likely that Team A will need 21 additional sprints to complete the work. And for Team B?

The picture of the future based on the backlog burndown is a close match to the picture from the velocity data, about 22 sprints to complete the work.

If you were a product owner, responsible for keeping the customer informed of progress, which set of numbers would you want to base your report on? Would you rather surprise the customer with a “sudden” and extended delay or would you rather communicate openly and accurately?

Summary

Leaving spikes unpointed…

  • Increases the probability that performance metrics will reveal problems sooner and thus allow for corrective actions to be taken earlier in a project.
  • The team’s velocity and backlog burndown is a more accurate reflection of value actually being created for the customer and therefore allows for greater confidence of any predictions based on the metrics.

I’m interested in hearing your position on whether or not spikes should be estimated with story points (or some other measure.) I’m particularly interested in hearing where my thinking described in this article is in need of updating.

[This article originally appeared on the Agile Alliance blog.]

How To Run an Agile Death March

Found on the Internet…

An experienced scrum master describes their work cycles as going “from being very busy during sprint end/start weeks to be [sic] very bored.” While this scrum master works very hard to fill in the gaps with 1:1’s with the team members and providing regular training opportunities, they nonetheless ask the question, “Does anyone have any suggestions of things I am maybe not doing that I should be doing?” One response included the following:

“Now, it could be that you have worked to create a hyper-performing team and there is no further room for improvement. A measure of this is that velocity (or similar metric) has increased by an order of magnitude in the last year.

However, the most likely scenario is that you and your team have become ‘comfortable’ and velocity has not increased significantly in the last few Sprints and/or there is a high variance in velocity.”

This reflects a common misunderstanding of “velocity” and its confusion with “acceleration.” (It also reflects the “more is better” and “winners vs losers” thinking derived from the scrum sports metaphor and points as a way of keeping score. I’ve written about that elsewhere.) Neither does the commenter understand what “order of magnitude” means. A velocity that increases by an order of magnitude in a year isn’t a velocity, it’s an acceleration. That’s a bad thing. This wouldn’t be a “hyper-performing” team. This would be a team headed for a crash as a continual acceleration in story points completed is untenable. More and more points each sprint isn’t the goal of scrum. A product owner cannot predict when their team might complete a feature or a project if the delivery of work is accelerating throughout the project.

Assuming a typical project, something that continues for a year or more, the team and the project will eventually crash as they’ve been pressured to work more and more hours and cut more and more corners in the interests of completing more and more points. The accumulation of bugs, small and large, will slow progress. Team fatigue will increase and moral decrease, resulting in turn-over and further delays. In common parlance, this is referred to as a “death march.”

Strictly speaking, velocity is some displacement over time. In the case of scrum, it is the number of story points completed in a sprint. We’ve “displace” some number of story points from being “not done” to “done.” By itself, a single sprint’s velocity isn’t particularly useful. Looking at the velocity of a number of successive sprints, however, is useful. There are two pieces of information from looking at successive sprint velocities that, when considered together, can reveal useful aspects of how well a team is performing or not. The first is the average over the previous 5 to 8 sprints, a rolling average. As a yard stick, this can provide a measure of predictability. Using this average, a product owner can make a rough calculation for how many sprints remain before completing components or the project based on the story point information in the product backlog.

The measure of confidence for this prediction would come from an analysis of the variance demonstrated in the sprint velocity values over time. Figures 1 and 2 show the distinction between the value provided by a rolling average and the value provided by the variance in values over time.

Figure 1

Figure 2

In both cases the respective teams have an average velocity of 21 points per sprint. However, the variability in the values over time show that the team in Figure 1 would have a much higher level of confidence in any predictions based on their past performance than the team shown in Figure 2.

What matters is the trend, each sprint’s velocity over a number of sprints. The steady completion of story points (i.e. work) sprint to sprint is the desirable goal. Another way to say this is that a steady velocity makes it possible to predict project delivery dates. In real life, there will be a variance (up and down) of sprint velocity over time and the goal is to guide the project such that this variance is within a manageable range.

If a team were to set as its goal an increase in the number of story points completed from sprint to sprint then their performance chart might initially look like Figure 3.

Figure 3

Such a pace is unsustainable and eventually the team burns out. Fatigue, decreased moral, and overall dissatisfaction with the project cause team members to quit and progress grinds to a halt. The fallout of such a collapse is likely to include the buildup of significant technical debt and code errors as the run-up to the crescendo forced team members to cut corners, take shortcuts, and otherwise compromise the quality of their effort. [1] The resulting performance chart would look something like Figure 4.

Figure 4

All that said, I grant that there is merit in coaching teams to make reasonable improvements in their overall sprint performance. An increase in the overall average velocity might be one way to measure this. However, to press the team into achieving an order of magnitude increase in performance is a fools errand and more than likely to end in disaster for the team and the project.

References

[1] Lyneis, J.M, Ford, D.N. (2007). System dynamics applied to project management: a survey, assessment, and directions for future research. System Dynamics Review, 23 (2/3), 157-189.

Openness, Grapevines, and Strangleholds

If you truly value openness on your Agile teams, you must untangle them from the grapevine.

Openness is one of the core scrum values. As stated on Scrum.org:

“The scrum team and it’s stakeholders agree to be open about all the work and the challenges with performing the work.”

This is a very broad statement, encompassing not only openness around work products and processes, but also each individual’s responsibility for ensuring that any challenges related to overall team performance are identified, acknowledged, and resolved. In my experience, issues with openness related to work products or the processes that impact them are relatively straightforward to recognize and resolve. If a key tool, for example, is mis-configured or ill-suited to what the team needs to accomplish than the need to focus on issues with the tool should be obvious. If there is an information hoarder on the team preventing the free flow of information, this will reveal itself within a few sprints after a string of unknown dependencies or misaligned deliverables have had a negative impact on the team’s performance. Similarly, if a team member is struggling with a particular story card and for whatever reason lacks the initiative to ask for help, this will reveal itself in short order.

Satisfying the need for openness around individual and team performance, however, is a much more difficult behavior to measure. Everyone – and by “everyone” I mean everyone – is by nature very sensitive to being called out as having come up short in any way. Maybe it’s a surprise to them. Maybe it isn’t. But it’s always a hot button. As much as we’d like to avoiding treading across this terrain, it’s precisely this hypersensitivity that points to where we need to go to make the most effective changes that impact team performance.

At the top of my list of things to constantly scan for at the team level are the degrees of separation (space and time) between a problem and the people who are part of the problem. Variously referred to as “the grapevine”, back channeling, or triangulation, it can be one of the most corrosive behaviors to a team’s trust and their ability to collaborate effectively. From his research over the past 30 years, Joseph Grenny [1] has observed “that you can largely predict the health of an organization by measuring the average lag time between identifying and discussing problems.” I’ve found this to be true. Triangulation and back-channeling adds significantly to the lag time.

To illustrate the problem and a possible solution: I was a newly hired scrum master responsible for two teams, about 15 people in total. At the end of my first week I was approached by one of the other scrum masters in the company. “Greg,” they said in a whisper, “You’ve triggered someone’s PTSD by using a bad word.” [2]

Not an easy thing to learn, having been on the job for less than a week. Double so because I couldn’t for the life of me think of what I could have said that would have “triggered” a PTSD response. This set me back on my heels but I did manage to ask the scrum master to please ask this individual to reach out to me so I could speak with them one-to-one and apologize. At the very least, suggest they contact HR as a PTSD response triggered by a word is a sign that someone needs help beyond what any one of us can provide. My colleague’s responses was “I’ll pass that on to the person who told me about this.”

“Hold up a minute. Your knowledge of this issue is second hand?”

Indeed it was. Someone told someone who told the scrum master who then told me. Knowing this, I retracted my request for the scrum master to pass along my request. The problem here was the grapevine and a different tack was needed. I coached the scrum master to 1) never bring something like this to me again, 2) inform the person who told you this tale that you will not be passing anything like this along to me in the future, and 3) to coach that person to do the same to the person who told them. The person for whom this was an issue should either come to me directly or to my manager. I then coached my manager and my product owners that if anyone were to approach them with a complaint like this to listen carefully to the person, acknowledge that you heard them, and to also encourage them to speak directly with me.

This should be the strategy for anyone with complaints that do not rise to the level of needing HR intervention. The goal of this approach is to develop behaviors around personal complaints such that everyone on the team knows they have a third person to talk to and that the issue isn’t going to be resolved unless they talked directly to the person with whom they have an issue. It’s a good strategy for cutting the grapevines and short circuiting triangulation (or in my case the quadrangulation.) To seal the strategy, I gave a blanket apology to each of my teams the following Monday and let them know what I requested of my manager and product owners.

The objective was to establish a practice of resolving issues like this at the team level. It’s highly unlikely (and in my case 100% certain) that a person new to a job would have prior knowledge of sensitive words and purposely use language that upsets their new co-workers. The presupposition of malice or an assumption that a new hire should know such things suggested a number of systemic issues with the teams, something later revealed to be accurate. It wouldn’t be a stretch to say that in this organization the grapevine supplanted instant messaging and email as the primary communication channel. With the cooperation of my manager and product owners, several sizable branches to the grapevine had been cut away. Indeed, there was a marked increase in the teams attention at stand-ups and the retrospectives became more animated and productive in the weeks that followed.

Each situation is unique, but the intervention pattern is more broadly applicable: Reduce the number of node hops and associated lag time between the people directly involved with any issues around openness. This in and of itself may not resolve the issues. It didn’t in the example described above. But it does significantly reduce the barriers to applying subsequent techniques for working through the issues to a successful resolution. Removing the grapevine changes the conversation.

References

[1] Grenny, J. (2016, August 19). How to Make Feedback Feel Normal. Harvard Business Review, Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2016/08/how-to-make-feedback-feel-normal

[2] The “bad” word was “refinement.” The team had been using the word “grooming” to refer to backlog refinement and I had suggested we use the more generally accepted word. Apparently, a previous scrum master for the team had been, shall we say, overly zealous in pressing this same recommendation such that it was a rather traumatic experience for someone on the one of the teams. It later became known that this event was grossly exaggerated, “crying PTSD” as a variation of “crying wolf,” and that the reporting scrum master was probably working to establish a superior position. It would have worked, had I simply cowered and accepted the report as complete and accurate. The strategy described in this article proved effective at preventing this type of behavior.

Behind the Curtain: The Delivery Team Member Role

Even with the formalization of Agile practices into numerous frameworks and methodologies, I have to say not much has changed for the software developer or engineer with respect to how they get work done. I’m not referring to technology. The changes in what software developers and engineers use to get work done has been seismic. The biggest shift in the “how,” in my experience, is that what were once underground practices are now openly accepted and encouraged.

When I was coding full time, in the pre-Agile days and under the burden of CMM, we followed all the practices for documenting use cases, hammering out technical and functional specs, and laboriously talking through requirements. (I smile when I hear developers today complain about the burden of meetings under Scrum.) And when it came time to actually code, I and my fellow developers set the multiple binders of documentation aside and engaged in many then unnamed Agile practices. We mixed and matched use cases in a way that allowed for more efficient coding of larger functional components. We “huddled” each morning in the passage way to cube pods to discuss dependencies and brainstorm solutions to technical challenges. Each of these became more efficiently organized in Agile as backlog refinement and daily stand-ups. We had numerous other loose practices that were not described in tomes such as CMM.

But Agile delivery teams today are frequently composed of more than just technical functional domains. There may be non-technical expertise included as integral members of the team. Learning strategists, content editors, creative illustrators, and marketing experts may be part of the team, depending on the objectives of the project. Consequently, this represents a significant challenge to technical members of the team (i.e. software development and  tech QA) who are unused to working with non-technical team members. Twenty years ago a developer who might say “Leave me alone so I can code.” would have been viewed as a dedicated worker. Today, it’s a sign that the developer risks working in isolation and consequently delivering something that is mis-matched with the work being done by the rest of the team.

On an Agile delivery team, whether composed of a diverse set of functional domains or exclusively technical experts, individual team members need to be thinking of the larger picture and the impact of their work on that of their team mates and the overall work flow. They need to be much more attentive to market influences than in the past. The half-life of major versions, let along entire products, is such that most software products outside a special niche can’t survive without leveraging Agile principles and practices. Their knowledge must expand beyond just their functional domain. The extent to which they possess this knowledge is reflected in the day-to-day behaviors displayed by the team and it’s individuals.

  • Is everyone on the team sensitive and respectful of everyone else’s time? This means following through on commitments and promises, including agreed upon meeting start times. One person showing up five minutes late to a 15 minute stand-up has just missed out on a third of the meeting at least. If the team waits for everyone to show up before starting, the late individual has just squandered 5 minutes multiplied by the number of team mates. For a 6 member team, that’s a half hour. And if it happens every day, that’s 2.5 hours a week. It adds up quickly. Habitual late-comers are also signaling a lack of respect to other team members. They are implicitly saying “Me and my time is more important than anyone else on the team.” Unchecked, this quickly spills over into other areas of the team’s interactions. Enforcing an on-time rule like this is key to encouraging the personal discipline necessary to work effectively as a team. When a scrum master keeps the team in line with a few basic items like this, the larger discipline issues never seem to arise. As U.S. Army General Ann Dunwoody (ret.) succinctly points out in her book, never walk by a mistake. Doing so gives implicit acceptance for the transgression. Problems blossom from there, and it isn’t a pretty flower. (As a scrum master, I cannot “make” someone show up on time. But I can address the respect aspect of this issue by always starting on time. That way, late-comers stand out as late, not more important. Over time, this tends to correct the lateness issue as well.)
  • Everyone on the team must be capable of tracking a constantly evolving set of dependencies and knowing where their work fits within the flow. To whom will they be delivering work? From whom are they expecting completed work? The answer to these questions may not be a name on the immediate team. Scrum masters must periodically explicitly ask these questions if the connections aren’t coming out naturally during stand-ups. Developing this behavior is about coaching the team to look beyond the work on their desk and understand how they are connected to the larger effort. Software programmers seem to have a natural tendency to build walls around their work. Software engineers less so. And on teams with diverse functional groups it is important for both the scrum master and product owner to be watchful for when barriers appear for reasons that have more to due to lack of familiarity across functional domains than anything else.
  • Is the entire team actively and consistently engaged with identifying and writing stories?
  • Is the team capable and willing to cross domain boundaries and help? Are they interested in learning about other parts of the product and business?

Product owners and scrum masters need to be constantly scanning for these and other signs of disengagement as well as opportunities to connect cross functional needs.

Behind the Curtain: The Product Owner Role

When someone owns something they tend to keep a closer watch on where that something is and whether or not it’s in good working order. Owners are more sensitive to actions that may adversely affect the value of their investment. It’s the car you own vs the car you rent. This holds true for products, projects, and teams. For this reason the title of “product owner” is well suited to the responsibilities assigned to the role. The explicit call-out to ownership carries a lot of goodness related to responsibility, leadership, and action.

Having been a product owner and having coached product owners, I have a deep respect for anyone who takes on the challenges associated with this role. In my view, it’s the most difficult position to fill on an Agile team. For starters, there are all the things a product owner is responsible for as described in any decent book on scrum: setting the product vision and road map, ordering the product backlog, creating epics and story cards, defining acceptance criteria, etc. What’s often missing from the standard set of bullet items is the “how” for doing them well. Newly minted product owners are usually left to their own devices for figuring this out. And unfortunately, in this short post I won’t be offering any how-to guidance for developing any of the skills generally recognized to be part of the product owner role.

What I’d most like to achieve in this post is calling out several of the key skills associated with quality product ownership that are usually omitted from the books and trainings – the beyond-the-basics items that any product owner will want to include in their continuous learning journey with Agile. In no particular order…

  • Product owners must be superb negotiators when working with stakeholders and team members. The techniques used for each group are different so it’s important to understand the motivations that drive them. I’ve found Jim Camp’s “Start with No” and Chris Voss’ “Never Split the Difference” to be particularly helpful in this regard.
  • One of the four values stated in the Agile Manifesto is “Responding to change over following a plan.” Unfortunately, this is often construed to mean any change at any time is valuable. This Agile value isn’t a directive for maximum entropy and chaos. Product owners must remain vigilant to scope changes. And the boundaries for scope are defined by the decisions product owners make. So product owners must be decisive and committed to the decisions, agreements, and promises that have been made with stakeholders and the team.
  • Product owners need to have a good sense for when experimentation may be needed to sort out any complex or risky features in the project – creating spikes or proof-of-concept work early enough in the project so as to avoid any costly pivots later in the project.
  • Even with experimentation, making the call to pivot will require a product owner’s clear understanding of past events and any path forward that offers the greatest chance for success. As the sage says, predictions are difficult to make, particularly about the future. The expectation isn’t for clairvoyance, rather for the ability to pay close attention to what the (non-vanity) data are telling them.
  • Understanding how to work through failures and dealing with “The Dip,” as Seth Godin calls it, are also important skills for a product owner. The team and the stakeholders are going to look to the product owner’s leadership to demonstrate confidence that they are on the right track.

More than other roles on an Agile team, the product owner must be a truly well-rounded and experienced individual. Paradoxically, it is a role that is both constrained by the highly visible nature of the position and dynamic due to the skill set required to maximize the chances for project success.

Clouds and Windmills

I recently resigned from the company I had been employed by for over 5 years. The reason? It was time.

During my tenure1 I had the opportunity to re-define my career several times within the organization in a way that added value and kept life productive, challenging, and rewarding. Each re-definition involved a rather extensive mind mapping exercises with hundreds of nodes to described what was working, what wasn’t working, what needed fixing, and where I believed I could add the highest value.

This past spring events prompted another iteration of this process. It began with the question “What wouldn’t happen if I didn’t go to work today?”2 This is the flip of asking “What do I do at work?” The latter is a little self-serving. We all want to believe we are adding value and are earning our pay. The answer is highly filtered through biases, justifications, excuses, and rationalizations. But if in the midsts of a meeting you ask yourself, “What would be different if I were not present or otherwise not participating?”, the answer can be a little unsettling.

This time around, in addition to mind mapping skills, I was equipped with the truly inspiring work of Tanmay Vora and his sketchnote project. Buy me a beer some day and I’ll let you in on a few of my discoveries. Suffice it to say, the overall picture wasn’t good. I was getting the feeling this re-definition cycle was going to include a new employer.

A cascade of follow-on questions flowed from this iteration’s initial question. At the top:

  1. Why am I staying?
  2. Is this work aligned with my purpose?
  3. Have my purpose and life goals changed?

The answers:

  1. The paycheck
  2. No.
  3. A little.

Of course, it wasn’t this simple. The organization changed, as did I, in a myriad of ways. While exploring these questions, I was reminded of a story my Aikido teacher, Gaku Homma, would tell when describing his school. He said it was like a rope. In the beginning, it had just a few threads that joined with him to form a simple string. Not very strong. Not very obvious. But very flexible. Over time, more and more students joined his school and wove their practice into Nippon Kan’s history. Each new thread subtlety changed the character of the emerging rope. More threads, more strength, and more visibility. Eventually, an equilibrium emerges. Some of those threads stop after a few short weeks of classes, other’s (like mine) are 25 years long before they stop, and for a few their thread ends in a much more significant way.

Homma Sensi has achieved something very difficult. The threads that form Nippon Kan’s history are very strong, very obvious, and yet remain very flexible. Even so, there came a time when the right decision for me was to leave, taking with me a powerful set of skills, many good memories, and friendships. The same was true for my previous employer. Their rope is bending in a way that is misaligned with my purpose and goals. Neither good nor bad. Just different. Better to leave with many friendships intact and a strong sense of having added value to the organization during my tenure.

The world is full of opportunities. And sometimes you have to deliberately and intentionally clear all the collected clutter from your mental workspace so those opportunities have a place to land. Be attentive to moments like this before your career is remembered only as someone who yells at clouds and tilts at windmills.


1 By the numbers…

1,788 Stand-ups
1,441 Wiki/Knowledgebase Contributions
311 Sprint/Release Planning Sessions
279 Reviews
189 Retrospectives
101 Projects
31 Internal Meet-ups
22 Agile Cafés
10 Newsletters
5.5 Years
3 Distinct Job Titles
1 Wild Ride

2 My thanks to colleague Lennie Noiles and his presentation on Powerful Questions. While Lennie didn’t ask me this particular question, it was inspired by his presentation.